Specialized Mail-In Kit
Packet Insert & Kit Instructions (pdf)
PVSA kits have easy to follow instructions.
PVSA uses a patented fixative that preserves the semen specimen for analysis, which means the specimen is not time-sensitive and can be sent via regular mail. Techniques and instrumentation: Formaldehyde-fixed semen is suitable and safer for leukocyte detection and DNA amplification, Fertility and Sterility (pdf)
CLIA Certified Lab Results
Laboratory Test Protocol (pdf)
Fixed Semen Specimens are Stable in Heat and Cold, 2006 Bedford Research Foundation (jpeg)
Sperm Counts in Fresh and Fixed Semen Speciments, 2006 Bedford Research Foundation
Vasectomy in the United States, 2002 – “Poor compliance with follow up recommendations continues to be a problem…”
Mark A. Barone,* Paul L. Hutchinson, Christopher H. Johnson, Jason Hsia and Jennifer Wheeler, Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CHJ, JH), Atlanta, Georgia
The CDC surveyed vasectomy practices for the years 1991, 1995 and 2002. In 2002, 526,501 vasectomies were performed in the U.S., approximately the same rate (10 per 1,000 men) as in 1991 and 1995. Urologists, Family Practitioners and General Surgeons performed 79%, 13%, and 8% of the vasectomies, respectively. There was wide variation in the timing and number of follow-up semen analyses and only 36% of physicians reported that most men completed follow-up.
The Risk of Pregnancy After Vasectomy
Denise J. Jamieson, MD, MPH, Caroline Costello, MPH, James Trussell, PhD, Susan D. Hillis, PhD, Polly A. Marchbanks, PhD, and Herbert B. Peterson, MD, for the U.S. Collaborative Review of Sterilization Working Group*
A 2004 study by the CDC estimated a probability of 11 pregnancies per 1,000 vasectomies, principally due to non-compliance with follow-up semen analyses.
Pregnancy rates after vasectomy: a survey of US urologists
Catherine Deneux-Tharaux, Erum Kahn, Hanif Nazerali, David C. Sokal
A survey of 500 urologists to determine the incidence of pregnancy after vasectomy for the years 1993-1998 revealed 177 pregnancies, 51% due to unprotected sex during the immediate post-vasectomy period.
British Andrology Society guidelines for the assessment of post vasectomy semen samples (2002) P Hancock and E McLaughlin
The British Andrology Society has developed guidelines for post-vasectomy semen analyses. They recommend the first semen analysis at 16 weeks and after at least 24 ejaculations post procedure, and a second specimen 2 to 4 weeks later. The absence of sperm in both ejaculates represents a successful procedure, but does not preclude the appearance of sperm later on due to recanalization. The persistence of sperm, motile or nonmotile, requires continued follow-up.
How reliable is a vasectomy? Longterm follow-up of vasectomised men
LANCET, N Haldar, D Cranston, E Turner, I MacKenzie, J Guillebaud
Of over 30,000 vasectomies performed between 1970 and 1999, 9 late failures resulted in pregnancy despite two consecutive sperm-free semen specimens at 16 and 18 weeks post-vasectomy. A prospective study of 2250 men with two specimens initially negative revealed 20 with positive specimens at year one, 4 at year two, and 1 at year three. Sperm motility was not evaluated; men with sperm counts greater than 100,000/ml underwent repeat vasectomy.
Vasectomy Follow-up: Clinical Significance of Rare Nonmotile Sperm in Postoperative Semen Analysis
Ashis Chawla, Ben Bowles, and Armand Zini
The presence of sperm, motile or non-motile, necessitates repeat follow-ups. Six hundred and ninety men undergoing no-scalpel vasectomy in Toronto, Canada, were instructed to produce follow-up semen specimens at 3 and 4 months post procedure. Forty-six percent of the men failed to submit specimens. Of the remaining 295 men, 60% were azoospermic in both specimens, 37% had rare non-motile sperm (RNMS) and 3% had rare motile sperm. In follow-up specimens, 20 (7%) of the men had persistent RNMS. One man with persistent RNMS subsequently developed motile sperm and underwent repeat vasectomy, as did one man with rare motile sperm.
Review of the records of a Family Practice performing 551 vasectomies revealed 58% of men returned for a 6-week follow-up semen analysis; 25% returned for a 3-month follow-up, and only 8% of men returned for a one year follow-up.
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